Small Animal Comprehensive Blood Profile
A blood sample is collected first thing in the morning before your pet has had breakfast. A fasted blood sample is needed to ensure more accurate testing and interpretation of results. Blood testing can show early signs of illness, often before your pet even seems to be sick. We can also use these values as a baseline for future testing.
What is the Small Animal Comprehensive Profile?
The Small Animal Comprehensive Profile is a series of tests (profiling) which allows noninvasive assessment of the major organ systems of the body. The major organ systems that are being tested are:
KIDNEY: Kidneys are responsible for filtering metabolic waste products, excess sodium and water from the blood stream which is then transferred to the bladder for excretion. Biochemistry and urinalysis tests can indicate; early renal disease, renal failure, infection, stones, cancer, and abnormalities resulting from long-term medications.
LIVER: The liver is a large organ with many different functions. It processes the blood by removing both bacteria and toxins as well as further breaking down many of the complex nutrients absorbed during the digestion of food into much smaller components for use by the rest of the body. Biochemistry test can indicate; Liver disease, Cushings syndrome, certain cancers, dehydration, obstruction of bile ducts, and abnormalities resulting from long-term medications.
PANCREAS: The pancreas is a small organ located near the small intestines and is responsible for producing several digestive enzymes and hormones that help regulate metabolism. Biochemistry tests can indicate; pancreatitis (inflammation), Diabetes mellitus, and abnormalities resulting from long-term medications.
What are all the multiple tests that are included
in the Small Animal Profile?
When we collect the blood we are able to separate it to allow different aspects of the blood to be tested. The blood is separated into three formations; serum for chemistries, plasma for blood glucose, and whole blood for the Complete Blood Count or CBC (WBC, RBC, and platelets).
GLUCOSE: Glucose is the basic nutrient for the body. It is highly regulated in the blood stream, but does fluctuate for a few hours after eating. Glucose changes may be seen with a variety of metabolic diseases and various organ system abnormalities.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)—a metabolic waste product that is formed in the liver and removed by the kidneys from the blood stream. Can be an indication of reduced Kidney and Liver function
CREATININE—a metabolic waste formed during muscle metabolism and is removed from the blood stream via the kidney. Abnormal values can be an indication of reduced Kidney and Liver function.
Na (sodium), K (potassium), Cl (Chloride), TCO2, ANION GAP— Electrolytes which are critical to body function and must be maintained in very narrow limits. Dehydration is a common cause of electrolyte imbalances
PHOSPHORUS—plays an important role in the synthesis of protein for the growth, maintenance and repair of cells and tissues. Abnormal values can be due to decreased renal function.
CALCIUM—a mineral that is important in heart function, helps with muscle contraction, nerve signaling, and blood clotting. Abnormal values could be due to cancer, pancreatitis, antifreeze poisoning.
ALBUMIN—a protein produced in the liver which helps with excretion of drugs and is of assistance in removing toxins. These levels can provide information about the function of liver, kidneys and digestive system.
ALT (alanine aminotransferase)—an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Increased values can indicate liver cell injury.
ALKP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT—an enzyme found in liver cells and bile ducts. Increased values may support bile obstruction.
AMYYLASE and LIPASE —are pancreatic enzymes which aid in digestion. Increased values could be due to pancreatitis.
TOTAL BILIRUBIN—one of the byproducts of red blood cell breakdown and is processed by the liver. Elevation can be a result of decreased liver function or increased red blood cell destruction.
CHOLESTEROL—Cholesterol is produced in the liver as part of fat metabolism. Increases are associated with hormonal and metabolic diseases, liver diseases, and kidney diseases.
GLOBULINS—a group of proteins that carry: hormones, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Increased levels are often associated with inflammation and/or infectious diseases.
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
RED BLOOD CELLS: Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most numerous and longest living of the different types of blood cells and typically makes up almost half of the blood’s volume. RBCs contain a special protein called hemoglobin (HGB) that binds to the oxygen in the lungs and enables the RBC to transport the oxygen as it travels through the rest of the body. Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells and are produced by the bone marrow.
HCT (hematocrit), HGB (hemoglobin) measurements of red blood cell mass
MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW measurements describing the RBCs
RETICULOCYTES immature RBCs seen during times of increased demand for RBC production.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS: White blood cells are primarily responsible for fighting infections. There are five different types of white bloods cells and each one performs specific functions to keep the body healthy.
NEUTROPHILS are most common and help fight bacterial infections
LYMPHOCYTES are a component of the immune system and produce antibodies
MONOCYTES ingest large particles and help clear areas with tissue injury
EOSINOPHILS are involved in allergic responses and parasitic diseases
BASOPHILS are uncommon and are involved in allergic and parasitic disease.
WBC DIFFERENTIAL: Various patterns of change in numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils may be seen with different types of inflammation, stress, excitement and leukemia.
PLATELETS: Platelets play a critical role in preventing bleeding
The following tests may or may not be added
to a Small Animal Comprehensive Panel
THYROXINE: Thyroxine (T4), produced by the thyroid gland, is a hormone essential for growth and metabolism. Increases may indicate hyperthyroidism; decreases may indicate hypothyroidism. Another thyroid hormone that is often tested in conjunction with T4 is called the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). This hormone is often elevated with hypothyroidism as its function is to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more T4.
URINALYSIS: Urinalysis includes physical, chemical and microscopic evaluation of urine. This analysis provides insight into kidney function, hydration status, and detection of bladder infections of the animal. This valuable test may also be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring various diseases and metabolic disturbances throughout the body.
Created October 7, 2010